R1 Use as fuel
Use as a fuel (other than in direct incineration) or other means to generate energy - use of tyres, waste oils, or spent solvents in cement kilns; co-incineration of sewage sludge or refuse-derived fuel (RDF) from municipal waste in power stations.
Organic substance recycling/reclamation
Solvent reclamation/regeneration - re-refining of solvents in order to separate contaminants and to restore the solvent to its original quality or to a
lower grade product (e.g. lacquer thinner); preparation of secondary liquid fuels (SLF), usually by blending with other liquid wastes.
Recycling/reclamation of organic substances which are not used as solvents - recycling of waste paper and board; reprocessing and recycling of plastic waste; composting of bio waste and green waste; fermentation of biodegradable waste for biogas production (biogas plants).
Recycling/reclamation of metals and metal compounds - recycling of scrap and production waste in steelworks; shredding and reprocessing of ELVs and WEEE; thermal treatment of cables or oil-contaminated metals; battery recycling; electrolytic recovery of silver from photo chemicals.
Inorganic substance recycling/reclamation
Recycling/reclamation of other inorganic
materials - reprocessing of construction and demolition waste; reprocessing and
recycling of glass waste; use as secondary raw material in cement kilns; asphalt
mixing plants; use for underground stowage in mines.
Regeneration of acids or bases -
re-concentration of spent acids; the thermal decomposition of spent sulphuric
acid for use as feedstock in sulphuric acid production.
Recovery of components used for pollution abatement - regeneration of activated carbon from water purification and flue gas treatment, mainly by thermal treatment; the regeneration of resins by solvent washing.
Recovery of components from catalysts
Recovery of components from catalysts -regeneration of catalysts to be reused as catalysts; the recovery of catalyst components, mainly of metal components, e.g. recycling of precious metals from catalytic converters in vehicle exhausts.
oil refining or other reuses of previously used oil
Used oil re-refining or other reuses of previously used oil - Re-refining into base oils which can be used to manufacture lubricating products; use to generate fuel which can be used as a substitute for coal, diesel and light fuel.
Land treatment resulting in benefit to
agriculture or ecological improvement - use of sewage sludge in agriculture in
compliance with the Sewage Sludge Directive; the spreading on land of compost
from the treatment of separately collected biowaste; the use of manure in
compliance with agricultural regulations; the use of mineral wastes as
fertilisers in compliance with national legislation; landscape restoration, e.g.
as final landfill cover; restoration of old disused quarries.
Uses of residual materials obtained from
any of the operations numbered R1-R10 - energy recovery of sorting residues,
shredder light fraction, or distillation sludge from oil-refining; the use of
slag from co-incineration for underground stowage.
Storage prior to recovery
Exchange of wastes for submission to any of the operations numbered R1-R11 - basic sorting activities; mixing of waste from different generators before it is sent to a recovery facility; transfer and compaction of waste; shredding of wood waste prior to energy recovery.
Accumulation of material intended for any operation numbered R1-R12 - interim storage of waste prior to recovery is limited to a period of <3 years, otherwise storage is subject to provisions of Landfill Directive.
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